Design for Six Sigma Tools (Part 1)

By | July 25, 2018

There are many DFSS tools and from that we will discussed some Popular tools.

Toll Gate Review

  1. The project status is reviewed at the end of every phase by the senior management, Six Sigma team, and technical staff.
  2. To understand if the project has made adequate progress, and the product or the service is on target to meet what the customer wants.
  3. Each stage must have a list of deliverables set out. During the course of the stage, the deliverables are attempted to be met; and in the ensuing stage review, the deliverables are reviewed.
  4. Toll gate reviews also allow the team to eliminate obstacles in the way of the project completion.


  1. Bench-marking is the process of identifying industry’s best performance or best practices from another industry, and comparing them with their own business processes and performance metrics.
  2. Three types of bench-marking practices exist – Internal, competitive, and functional.
  • Internal – Identifying the best practices in the business.
  • Competitive – Researching products or services across competitors.
  • Functional – Identifying and studying organizations that are considered ideal in the function.
  1. Limitations
  • What worked at one company may or may not work in another company.
  • A possible scope of killing creativity.


  1. MSA stands for measurement system analysis.
  2. Measurement system analysis helps in achieving higher accuracy of measurements and minimizes the risk of flawed data. Flawed data could lead to flawed analysis and further flawed inference.
  3. MSA involves six factors – 1) Repeatability, 2) Reproducibility, 3) Stability, 4) Linearity, 5) Bias, and 6) Discrimination.
  4. As per automotive industry action group (AIAG), the guideline based on measurement error % is:
  • Under 10%, measurement system is acceptable.
  • 10% – 30%, measurement system is acceptable with conditions.
  • > 30%, measurement system needs correction.

Detailed process to conduct MSA for different data types is explained in Section 3, with relevance to DMAIC approach along with the necessary tools.


  1. VOC stands for voice of customer.
  2. It is used to capture stated or unstated customer needs or requirements.
  3. Within any organization, there will be multiple customer voices: the procuring unit, the user, and the supporting maintenance unit. Within those units, there may also be multiple customer voices. The project team must consider these diverse voices while developing designs.
  4. Focus groups and customer surveys are popular techniques used for collecting voice of customer and in understanding their needs.
  5. One of the first things a Black Belt must do on receipt of VOC comments, whether in DFSS or DMAIC project, is to know that these comments may be raw and need to be categorized and analyzed systematically.
  6. VOC is sometimes also referred to as VOTC (Voice of the Customer).

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