Design for Six Sigma Tools (Part 3)

By | July 25, 2018

There are many DFSS tools and from that we will discussed some Popular tools.


  1. Stands for house of quality, and in simple words, it is an extension of the quality function deployment.
  2. The HOQ helps the team organize their thinking in a structure way and reach a common consensus on what the prime customer needs are.
  3. The HOQ ensures all CTQs of customers are mapped, identified, and translated to the organization.
  4. The HOQ also acts as a tool for planning and organizing CTQs at all steps of design and development.
  5. The HOQ is an L-shaped matrix that allows the team to quantitatively analyze the relationship between customer needs and service features.
  6. There are 4 key phases in updating HOQ:
  • Phase 1 – Product planning – Translate the customer needs to prioritized top company metrics or measures.
  • Phase 2 – Part planning – Translate design requirements to part characteristics.
  • Phase 3 – Process planning – Move part characteristics into process design.
  • Phase 4 – Production planning – Move process characteristics to production and process requirements.

HOQ template Can found Black Belt toolkit if needed knock us.


  1. AHP stands for analytic hierarchy process. It is a structured technique based on mathematics and psychology for organizing and making complex decisions.
  2. Information is decomposed into a hierarchy of alternatives and criteria.
  3. Information is then synthesized to determine relative ranking of alternatives.
  4. Both qualitative and quantitative information can be compared using informed judgments to derive weights and priorities.
  5. Process for using AHP:
  • Model the problem as a hierarchy that has the goal and alternatives;
  • Establish priorities;
  • Synthesize judgments to establish overall priorities in hierarchy;
  • Check consistency of judgments; and
  • Arrive at a final decision based on the process.

This is a useful tool which helps in arriving at an informed decision when there are multiple concepts that need to be narrowed down.

Pugh Matrix for Concept Selection

  1. Pugh matrix is a method for selecting a concept among multiple concepts by using a scoring matrix, and is used in almost all DFSS implementations.
  2. Pugh matrix is closely tied to the QFD and is in the form of a prioritization matrix.
  3. Options are scored relatively (better than, worse than, or neutral).
  4. This method is effective only when there are multiple solution alternatives and it is necessary to choose one for the project deployment.

Pugh matrix for concept selection tool has been provided as part of the toolkit. Refer to the tool and facilitator for guiding through the steps shown in the next slide to know how this tool is used.

  1. How to update the Pugh matrix?
  2. Choose or develop the criteria for comparison.
  3. Select the alternatives (new solutions) to be compared.
  4. Generate scores for each solution. Better solutions to be scored +1, neutral solutions to be scored 0, and worse solutions to be scored -1.
  5. Compute the final score based on the scoring done.

Important: Always ensure the presence of a process expert in updating the Pugh matrix for selecting concepts. The Black Belt’s responsibility is to ensure the Process Expert’s attendance.

Sample Pugh Matrix

Monte Carlo Simulation

  1. Monte Carlo simulation is a computer simulation technique that allows people to factor in risk, in qualitative decision making.
  2. For any choice of action, it provides a list of possible outcomes along with the probabilities of their occurrence. These information helps in decision making.
  3. The simulation also shows extreme events, i.e., events that have maximum probability (sun during summer) and least probability (earthquake) to occur, and also the events that lie right in the middle of a typical probability distribution.
  4. Output values are sampled randomly from input probability distributions.

Important: Understanding how Monte Carlo simulations work is important for a Black Belt. Doing Monte Carlo simulations and its analysis will need guidance from Master Black Belt.

Design for X

  1. Design for X, also known as DfX, is a summary of a wide collection of specific design guidelines.
  2. Each design addresses a particular characteristic of a product by which the customer may be affected.
  3. DfX addresses issues in the following phases of a typical product cycle:
  • Development – Design for test, design for safety;
  • Production – Design to cost, design to standards;
  • Utilization – Design for ergonomics, design for aesthetics; and
  • Disposal – Design for environment.

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